Wednesday, February 20, 2013
Propeller based geiger counter
A few months ago I got one of the Sparkfun geiger counters and, despite my plans to make this unit into a portable device, it's ended up as my basement radiation sensor. So, there was only one option available to me - buy another geiger counter (GC). This device arrived a couple of weeks ago and it will be a portable device but still haven't figured out a way of protecting the delicate mica window so can also sample alpha radiation during my travels. A project for the future.
GC1, which was the first unit, is connected to my laptop via a USB to serial link. It outputs serial data in the forms of 1's and 0's but the only thing that interests me is the timing of each event. This is done via a VB6 program using the MScomm control which seems to introduce significant timing artifacts -- far more than I would have expected. Thus, GC2 is sampled via a Parallax Propeller chip. Considering that I've entered the Parallax Micromedic contest, I thought this would be good programming practice and, more importantly, practice at putting circuits which spread over my desk into boxes.
After a month of coding for the Propeller chip, I can honestly say that I've never had this much fun programming since I first discovered computers. The Propeller chip is an amazing device that runs at 20 MIPS/cog (although by changing from a 5.00 MHz to a 6.250 MHz crystal one can overclock it to 25 MIPS/cog) and it's a hardware hackers dream machine. I highly recommend this chip for any application that needs to connect to hardware. My preference is for Propeller assembly language (PASM) although there is also the option of Spin as well as PropForth which I'm just playing around with now.
The setup I'm using is shown below:
The GC is powered from the Propeller demo board +5V output (on the left) and the output of the GC (the Out pin) is connected to a Propeller pin via a 18 Kohm resistor. One can go higher as the Propeller only requires low input currents, but the 18 Kohm resistor happened to be in a box of resistors so I grabbed it, it worked, and that's all I wanted.
Propeller code is written in PASM with a bit of Spin glue code. All the Propeller code does is to look for a high-going pulse on one of its inputs and, when it finds one, it grabs the start time of the pulse and starts timing the duration. When the pulse goes low, the clock time and pulse duration are written to hub RAM on the propeller. The Spin code just executes an endless loop looking for new data and, when it finds some, formats it and sends it over a serial connection at 115,200 baud to my laptop. The resolution of the Propeller "clock" is 2 microseconds and so after some 8900 seconds, the 32 bit clock counter overflows. Considering that I'm just interested in the intervals between two GC events, there's no need for me to have an extension to this 500 KHz clock.
A histogram of the distribution of pulse widths is shown below:
So, the pulse is a rather short one and I'm likely getting the largest pulses as an examination of the Sparkfun GC schematic shows that the Out connection is just coming from a single transistor capturing the GM tube voltage. The Out connection really should use a larger resistor, as the out connection is taken at the juncture of Q2's emitter with R17 which is a 1 Mohm resistor to gnd. Likely there are some interesting GM tube phenomena happening is one was to look at some of the lower voltages, but I'd suggest sticking in a FET op-amp voltage follower to get a high enough input impedance and then connecting to the Propeller. The pulse is quite short (~280 microseconds in width) with a narrow distribution although there was a single pulse among the 6560 points which was about 470 microseconds long.
When one looks at the distribution of inter-event intervals, they form a classic exponential curve as one would expect for a stochastic radioactive decay process:
While the number of intervals is still small, it appears that the "ringing" that was visible in the early portion of the decay curve is absent thus proving this is a M$ windoze artifact. Already quite a nice curve fit and the value of C is quite similar to that obtained wtih GC1.
Next step was to compare GC1 with GC2. GC1 has been running for several months now with periodic restarts of the sampling program to keep the file size managable. Here's the last week or mores data from GC1:
A couple of things to notice about this graph:
(1) the periodic spiking throughout. This is what I believe is the windoze artifact. In a stochastic variable, any such periodicities should be eliminated with enough sampling as it's well known that the the limit of this distribution (assuming a stationary radioactive source) as N approaches infinity is a pure exponential curve
(2) Marked excess of short intervals. I commented on this anomaly when I first began my series of blog posts about the Sparkfun GC, then the short intervals went away. However, over the course of the last month or so, the mean cpm have gone from 15 to 16.9. It may be that GC1 is either picking up some of the small oscillations that result in a GM tube when an especially energetic cosmic ray passes through or it may be a more sensitive tube. Of course the only way to sort this out is to buy another GC and have two of them running in parallel monitoring my basement background radiation (does this process ever end?)
Also seen above is that the two exponential fit is marginally better than a single exponential fit (in retrospect, the color of the line for the 2 exponential fit is too close to the original red). The two exponential fit also seems to fit the data better fromabout 4000-10000 msec where the single exponential fit is seen to sag in relation to the data.
When one compares GC1 and GC2, one finds a close correspondence between the two units except in the very short interval region:
Given the small number of samples, GC2 data is obviously quite a bit noisier. The difference GC1-GC2 is shown below:
As has been the case with my previous programs, they'll be posted once they're cleaned up enough to be exposed to public gaze. The Propeller pulse finding program will be posted first to Propeller forums and will try to remember to update this blog entry when I do that. All of my code is open source but I consider it unwise to post broken code.
Sparkfun and Parallax have been great catalysts at getting me heavily involved in electronics again (I'm not sure my patients appreciate this newfound interest). Sparkfun is a very dangerous site to peruse at 03:00 if ones credit card is in easy reach (even worse I've memorized my credit card number given the amount of late night ordering of toys that I do). Sparkfun's electronics are totally open source and I get the feeling that whoever designs the circuits gets something working, has circuit boards etched, and puts it on the site for sale. I'm not denigrating the quality of their material, but rather pointing out that their designs are unfinished. OTOH, this is a tremendous impetus to improve on the design and that particular aspect of their products has gotten me programming with the solder programming language (to quote Steve Ciarcia).
Parallax is another company that has bought into the open-source concept and they produce an incredible microcontroller in the form of the Propeller1 chip (and the Propeller2, when it comes out, will be the bit-bangers ultimate wet dream). I've gotten one of the Propeller1 chips running with a 10 nsec clock speed and am finding that I have to insert NOP's for my "high speed" TTL circuitry to function correctly! This particular hardware interface to the GC took about 15 minutes of soldering and a couple of hours of programming in PASM. Teraterm is used to store the data to a text file which is then processed by a simple VB6 program and plotted out with DPlot.